Pine martens should be trapped and relocated away from capercaillie breeding areas, the Scottish Gamekeeper's Association has said.
The organisation said removing the predator would help to halt a decline in numbers of the rare bird.
The SGA's suggestion of trialling the trapping and transfer of pine martens is not supported by RSPB Scotland or Scottish Natural Heritage.
The mammals are legally protected and the subject of conservation work.
Foxes, crows and birds of prey also hunt capercaillie.
Bad weather, loss of habitat and collisions with deer fences have also been blamed for deaths of the birds.
The SGA said not enough was being done to control pine martens and capercaillie were "doomed" to extinction if measures were not taken.